The words “relating to”, “connected with”, or “incidental thereto” mean largely the same thing, and indicate that the causes or matters must be linked with labour, employment, trade unions, etc. The Court of Appeal, in interpreting this provision, in the case of Salami v. National Judicial Council, while acknowledging that it “bestowed exclusive jurisdiction on the Court in all matters relating to or connected or incidental to labour, trade disputes, and industrial relations”, added the phrase “other ancillary matters that may arise out of the same which hitherto had been within the confines of concurrent jurisdiction of the State High Courts and Federal High Court at first instance.” You will agree that the word “ancillary” was not used in the statute and does not have the same meaning as the words “relating to”, “connected with”, or “incidental thereto” used in the Constitution.
Also, software copyright can be infringed without necessarily making a copy of the code. The mere use of an original computer program to create the same functionality in a new program would suffice as an infringement. Even if none of the original code is used, the copyright in the original program may in some cases be infringed. For example, using an original computer program for “inspiration” to create the same functionality in a new program.
Section 54 of the PIA, provides that all assets and liabilities of the NNPC will be transferred to NNPC Ltd within the first 18 months of the PIA coming into effect. Further to that, Subsection 2 of the Act states that any assets, interests, or liabilities not transferred shall remain that of the NNPC until extinguished or transferred to the government. This means that some toxic assets may be excluded. With this transition taking effect, existing contracts and Joint Operating Agreements (JOAs) with NNPC will be evaluated and transferred in line with agreed principles to ensure business continuity.